This project aims to implement a project related to the processing and burning of industrial waste and the production of hydrogen (H2). and / or hydrogen dimethyl ether (DME (H2)) or hydrogen dibutyl ether (DBE (H2)) based on environmentally friendly production. Hydrogen production is an integral, first link in the life cycle of hydrogen consumption, part of hydrogen energy. Hydrogen is practically not found on the Earth in its pure form and must be extracted from other compounds using various chemical methods.
The significance of hydrogen is also that it can provide humanity with the necessary energy for survival and progress in harmony with nature. These efforts will continue to be undertaken on the universal path to sustainability for present and future generations. Hydrogen has been proposed as a fuel that carries these qualities in order to withstand the two biggest environmental dangers that humanity faces, namely climate change and air pollution. Therefore, despite the current problems faced by hydrogen technology, this gas has proved that it can become a catalyst for the shift of our current environmental, social and economic realities into an unexplored sustainable and more equitable future for human coexistence with nature.
Hydrogen energy over the past few decades has been considered the energy of the future and, in many ways, the “closing” energy technology. According to the European Commission, in 2017, the United States ($ 500 million), Japan ($ 300 million) and the EU countries ($ 230 million) were the main investors in the development of hydrogen energy. Leading countries also include South Korea ($ 100 million) and China ($ 60 million). In the future, India, China, and Africa are called the main regions for fuel cell sales, where the development of the telecommunications market is largely hampered by an imperfect power supply system. It should be noted that the incentives for the introduction of fuel cells in different regions of the world are different. So, in the EU and Japan, the emphasis is on improving the environmental situation, while in the USA, above all, there is an increase in energy security and ease of use. China, in many ways, is developing technology in an effort to achieve global technological leadership.
Methods of hydrogen production
Steam conversion with water vapor at 1000 ° C:
Hydrogen can be obtained in different purities: 95-98% or very pure. Depending on the further use, hydrogen is produced under various pressures: from 1.0 to 4.2 MPa. The raw material (natural gas or light oil fractions) is heated to 350-400 ° in a convection oven or heat exchanger and enters the desulfurization apparatus. The converted gas from the furnace is cooled in a recovery furnace, where steam of the required parameters is generated. After the stages of high-temperature and low-temperature conversion of CO, the gas enters the adsorption of CO2 and then to the methanation of the residual oxides. The result is hydrogen of 95-98.5% purity with a content of 1-5% methane and traces of CO and CO2 ..
In the event that it is necessary to obtain very pure hydrogen, the installation is supplemented by an adsorption separation section of the converted gas. In contrast to the previous scheme, the conversion of CO is single-staged. A gas mixture containing H2, CO2, CH4, H2O and a small amount of CO is cooled to remove water and sent to adsorption apparatus filled with zeolites. All impurities are adsorbed in one step at ambient temperature. The result is hydrogen with a purity of 99.99%. The pressure of the resulting hydrogen is 1.5-2.0 MPa.
Catalytic oxidation with oxygen is also possible.
Transmission of water vapor over hot coal at a temperature of about 1000 ° C. The oldest way to produce hydrogen. The cost of the process is $ 2- $ 2.5 per kilogram of hydrogen. In the future, prices may be reduced to $ 1.50, including shipping and storage.
Electrolysis of aqueous solutions of salts:
Hydrogen from biomass is obtained by a thermochemical or biochemical method. In the thermochemical method, biomass is heated without oxygen to a temperature of 500 ° -800 ° (for wood waste), which is much lower than the temperature of the coal gasification process. As a result of the process, H2, CO and CH4 are released. The cost of the process is $ 5- $ 7 per kilogram of hydrogen. In the future, a reduction to $ 1.0- $ 3.0 is possible.
Various new hydrogen production technologies are being developed. For example, in October 2006, the London Hydrogen Partnership published a study about the possibility of producing hydrogen from municipal and commercial waste. According to a study in London, 141 tons of hydrogen can be produced daily by both pyrolysis and anaerobic digestion of garbage. 68 tons of hydrogen can be produced from municipal waste.
141 tons of hydrogen is sufficient for the operation of 13750 buses with internal combustion engines running on hydrogen. In London, more than 8,000 buses are currently in operation.